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Recent infectious diseases outbreaks

Updated:
Dec. 05. 2012

CHOLERA

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

November
28, 2012- as of November 3, 2012, 6,622 suspected cholera cases and 47
suspected cholera-related deaths have been reported for 2012.

 

As
of August 19, 2012, there have been a
total of 26,712 suspected cholera cases and a total 415 suspected
cholera-related deaths since the cholera epidemic began. Cholera cases have
begun to rise due to the rainy season.

August 05, 2012 – An outbreak of cholera has
been ongoing in the Dominican Republic since November 2010. Cases of cholera
have decreased recently (a decline of 60% compared with last year at this
time). However, cases may begin to increase again due to the approaching rainy
season (from June to October). The provinces with the highest number of cases
in March were Santo Domingo, San Juan, and San Cristobal. Dominican Republic
health authorities are taking measures to prevent the spread of the disease.

 

 

DEMOCRATIC
REPUBLIC OF CONGO

23
July 2012 –
The Democratic Republic of Congo
(DRC) has reported a sharp increase in the number of cholera cases in the armed
conflict area of North Kivu. According to the report, 368 new cases were
reported from epidemiological week 24 (11-17 June) to epidemiological week 26
(25 June-1 July). The most affected areas include Birambizo, Goma, Karisimbi,
Kiroshe, Mutwanga, Mweso and Rwanguba.

CUBA

August 22, 2012- The Cuban Ministry of Health has
confirmed the first cholera outbreak in Cuba in more than a century. As of July
31, 2012, 236 confirmed cases and 3 deaths have been reported in the cities of
Manzanillo, Bayamo, Yara, and Campechuela Niquero in Granma Province.
Currently, cases are limited to Granma Province, mostly in Manzanillo.
According to the Cuban Ministry of Public Health, control measures have been implemented,
including public awareness campaigns and efforts to ensure safe drinking water
and to improve environmental sanitation.

July 27, 2012– The Cuban Ministry of Health has
confirmed the first cholera outbreak in Cuba in more than a century. One hundred
thirty-seven confirmed cases and 3 deaths have been reported in Granma province
in the cities of Manzanillo, Bayamo, Yara, and Campechuela Niquero. Currently,
cases are limited to Granma Province, mostly in Manzanillo

SIERRA
LEONE

8 September 2012 –The Ministry of Health and Sanitation (MOHS) is closely working with
partners at national and international levels to step up response to the
cholera outbreak that has affected Sierra Leone since the beginning of the
year. As of 5 September 2012, a total of 16 360 cases including 255 deaths with
a case fatality rate (CFR) of 1.6% have been reported from 12 out of 13
districts. The western area of the country where the capital city of Freetown
is located, reported more than 60% of all new cases.

30
August 2012 –
Since the beginning of the year,
Sierra Leone has recorded 13,934 cases of cholera, with 232 deaths (Case
Fatality Rate of 1.7). The rate of new cases has accelerated rapidly since the
beginning of August. Eleven of the country’s 13 districts are now registering
cases with Western Area and Port Loko being the most affected. The most
recently affected district is Kenema district.

 

22
August 2012 –
Since the beginning of the year,
Sierra Leone has recorded 11 653 cases of cholera, with 216 deaths (Case Fatality
Rate of 1.9%). The rate of new cases has accelerated rapidly since the
beginning of August: since then, 5 706 cases have been recorded, and two new
districts, Bonthe and Kono, have been affected by the epidemic. Ten of the
country’s 13 districts are now registering cases and this spread emphasizes the
need to rapidly scale up the response. The two most heavily affected districts
are Western Area and Tonkolili.

 

DENGUE

AFRICA; KENYA,
UGANDA

As of August 2012, cases of probable dengue continue to occur in
Mogadishu, Somalia. As of May 2012, probable dengue cases have been reported in
eastern Kenya, and dengue cases have been confirmed in Mandera, Kenya. The
Kenyan Ministry of Health and local health officials have been working with
local hospitals and clinics to monitor the situation.

AMERICAS

In 2012, dengue cases have been
reported in most countries in Latin America. Confirmed dengue cases have been
reported in US travelers returning from Brazil, Cuba, the Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Haiti, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico.

MADERA,
PORTUGAL

17 October 2012An
outbreak of dengue fever has been reported in Madeira, Portugal. As of 10
October 2012, a total of 18 confirmed cases and 191 probable cases have been
reported.

 

MIDDLE EAST

Dengue activity
is reported occasionally throughout the Middle East, including areas popular
with travelers such as Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. Currently, dengue cases are
being reported in Pakistan and Yemen.

PACIFIC; MARSHAL ISLANDS

In October of 2011, the Republic of the
Marshall Islands declared a state of emergency due to a large dengue outbreak.
A total of 1,638 cases have been reported. Majuro Atoll had the highest number
of dengue cases. A dengue outbreak was also reported in Yap state of the
Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), as well as one in Palau. As of February
27, 2012, 1,173 cases of dengue have been reported from Yap.

SOUTH PACIFIC AND SOUTHWEST ASIA

An outbreak of dengue in the Federated
States of Micronesia resulted in more than 1,200 cases and two deaths from
September 2011 to April 2012. Starting in July 2012, cases have increased on
Yap Main Island. Cases of probable dengue are also being reported in the Yap
Outer Islands.Confirmed dengue cases have been reported in US travelers
returning from destinations in Asia, specifically the Philippines and Thailand.

Singapore, Malaysia, Cambodia, Taiwan,
the Philippines, Vietnam, India, Sri Lanka, and Thailand are among the
countries reporting dengue activity in 2012. Australia also continues to report
sporadic dengue activity in areas of northern Queensland.

 

MIDDLE EAST

Dengue activity
is reported sporadically throughout the Middle East, including areas popular
with travelers, such as Jeddah in Saudi Arabia.

EBOLA

UGANDA

30
November 2012 –
As of 28
November 2012, the Ministry of Health in Uganda reported 7 cases (6 confirmed,
1 probable) with Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Luweero and Kampala districts. Of
these cases, 4 died.

23
November 2012
-As of 23
November 2012, the Ministry of Health (MoH) of Uganda has reported 10 cases (6
confirmed and 4 probable,), including 5 deaths in Luweero and Kampala

August 21, 2012- The Ugandan
Ministry of Health (MOH) has reported an outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in
the Kibaale District of western Uganda. As of August 9, 2012, there have been
10 laboratory-confirmed cases, 13 probable cases, and 16 deaths.

REPUBLIC OF CONGO

26 October
2012 –
As of 24
October 2012, 52 cases (35 laboratory confirmed, 17 probable) with Ebola
haemorrhagic fever (EHF) have been reported in the Democratic Republic of Congo
(DRC). Of these, 25 have been fatal (12 confirmed, 13 probable).

8 October
2012 –
As of 7
October 2012, 49 cases (31 laboratory confirmed, 18 probable) with Ebola
haemorrhagic fever (EHF) have been reported in the Democratic Republic of Congo
(DRC). Of these, 24 have been fatal (10 confirmed, 14 probable). The cases
reported are from Isiro and Viadana health zones in Haut-Uélé district in
Province Orientale.

27
September 2012 –
As of 24
September 2012, 51 cases (19 laboratory confirmed, 32 probable) with Ebola
haemorrhagic fever (EHF) have been reported in the Democratic Republic of Congo
(DRC). Of these, 20 have been fatal (7 confirmed, 13 probable). The cases
reported are from Isiro and Viadana health zones in Haut-Uélé district in
Province Orientale. To date, 28 suspected cases have been reported and are being
investigated.

14
September 2012 –
Retrospective
epidemiological investigation recently identified additional confirmed and
probable cases with Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) in the Democratic Republic
of Congo (DRC), according to the Ministry of Health (MoH).

12
September 2012
, 41 cases (9 laboratory confirmed, and 32 probable) have
been reported from Haut-Uélé district in Province Orientale. Of these cases, 18
have been fatal. (5 confirmed and 13 probable). 18 healthcare workers are
included among the probable cases. 28 suspected cases have also been reported
and are being investigated. Since the last update, an additional 27 cases (1
laboratory confirmed and 26 probable) of EHF were identified through
retrospective epidemiological investigation in the two health zones of Isiro
and Viadana.

21 August 2012 –As of 20 August 2012, a total of 15 (13 probable and 2
confirmed) cases with 10 deaths have been reported in Province Orientale in
Eastern DRC. The reported cases and deaths have occurred in 3 health zones as
follows: 12 cases and 8 deaths in Isiro, including three (3) health care
workers who have died; 2 cases and 1 death in Pawa; and 1 fatal case in Dungu.

3 August 2012 –The Ministry of Health in Uganda has reported a cumulative
number of 53 suspected cases of Ebola haemorrhagic fever including 16 deaths.
Of these, five cases have been laboratory confirmed by the Uganda Virus
Research Institute (UVRI) in Entebbe (this includes three fatal cases and two
cases currently being treated in the isolation facility).

Currently 32 cases are admitted to
an isolation facility in Kagadi hospital, Kibaale district, and a total of 312
contacts were identified, of whom 253 are being closely followed-up. So far all
samples from other districts have tested negative for Ebola, indicating that
there has been no expansion of the outbreak beyond Kibaale District. However a
clinical officer who attended to a case in Kibaale district was transferred to
Mulago Hospital in Kampala for treatment but later died.

 

HAND,
FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE

VIETNAM

April 29, 2012, the Vietnam Ministry of
Health has confirmed nearly 40,000 cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease
(HFMD) since the beginning of 2012. Cases have occurred in 63 provinces, and 20
deaths (all in children under 5) have occurred in 10 provinces. Hai Phong in
the North has the highest number of cases, followed by Bac Can, Yen Bai, Lao
Cai, Hoa Binh, Da Nang, Vinh Phuc, Quang Tri, Dong Thap, and Binh Dinh
Provinces in the Center and Southern Regions. The Vietnam Ministry of Health is
taking steps to control the outbreak.

CAMBODIA,

July 9, 2012, the Cambodia Ministry of
Health has confirmed nearly 59.cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Of these, 52 have died.

HANTAVIRUS

USA,

12 September 2012 –As of 7 Sept 2012, The National
Park Service (NPS) has reported eight cases of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
(HPS) among visitors who stayed at Yosemite National Park in California since
June 2012. Of these, three were fatal and five cases are recovering.

LEPTOSPIROSIS

PERU

Flooding
has caused an outbreak of leptospirosis in Peru, especially in the Loreto
region. This is the worst flooding seen in this area for over 20 years. Peru
has reported more than 300 cases and 3 deaths associated with leptospirosis
thus far in 2012.

 

LASSA FEVER

NIGERIA

The Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health has reported an
increased number of cases of Lassa fever. Nineteen of the country’s 36 states
have reported cases since the beginning of 2012. As of April 13, 2012, there
were reports of 818 suspected cases, including 84 deaths. At this time, 131
cases have been confirmed by laboratory testing. Seven deaths have also been
reported among health care workers. Cases have occurred in the states of Edo,
Bauchi, Plateau and Taraba. The number of reported cases of Lassa fever in
Nigeria is greater this year than in previous years. However, cases in previous
years could have been underestimated due to the lack of laboratory and disease
investigation systems.

 

MARBURG
HEMORRHAGIC FEVER

UGANDA

23 November 2012
As
of 23 November 2012, a total of 20 (probable or confirmed) cases, including 9
deaths have been reported from4 districts in Uganda (Kabale, Ibanda, Mbarara,
and Kampala). The last confirmed case was hospitalised on 31 October 2012.

31 October 2012
As
of 28 October 2012, a total of 18 cases and 9 deaths, including a health
worker, have been reported from 5 districts namely Kabale district, in
south-western Uganda, Kampala (the capital city), Ibanda, Mbarara and Kabarole.
The case fatality rate is 50%.

22 October 2012
As
of 21 October 2012, nine (9) probable and confirmed cases, including 5 deaths
have been reported with Marburg haemorrhagic fever in Kitumba sub-county,
Kabale district in South-western Uganda.

21 October 2012
The
Ministry of Health in Uganda has declared an outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic
fever in Kitumba sub-county, Kabale district in South-western Uganda.

Blood samples
from 3 cases have tested positive for Marburg at the Uganda Virus Research
Institute (UVRI). Investigation into the outbreak is ongoing.The Ministry of
Health (MOH) is working closely with partners to control the outbreak.

MALARIA

GREECE

October 24, 2012 .Cases of malaria continue to be
reported in Greece. Some new cases have occurred in areas of Greece where
malaria had not been previously reported. Cases of malaria have been reported
from the Attica, Karditsa, Laconia, Viotia, and Xanthi regions of Greece. Cases
have occurred in the cities of Evrotas, Marathon, Markopoulo, and Selino. No
cases have been reported in Athens. The Hellenic (Greek) CDC and the European
CDC are improving surveillance for malaria cases. In affected areas, mosquito
control has been intensified, health care providers have been educated, and the
public has been informed.

As of August 5, 2012, 8 cases of malaria have been
reported from the Attica and Laconia regions of Greece. Cases have occurred in
the cities of Marathon, Markopoulo, and Evrotas. No cases have been reported in
Athens. The Hellenic (Greek) CDC and the European CDC are improving
surveillance for malaria cases. In affected areas, mosquito control has been
intensified, healthcare providers have been educated, and the public has been
informed.

 

 

MEASLES

EUROPE; FRANCE,
ROMANIA, UKRAINE, UNITED KINGDOM, SPAIN

As of May 23, 2012, in France, 358 cases of measles have
been reported in 2012. There were 15,206 cases reported in France in 2011.

As of May 23, 2012, 1,268 cases of measles have been
reported from Romania in 2012. There were 4,015 cases reported in Romania in
2011.

As of May 14, 2012, the Ministry of Health of Ukraine
reported 9,173 suspected measles cases in 2012, mostly in the western regions
of the country. The Ukraine Ministry of Health has reported strengthened
preventive measles measures including vaccination planning, surveillance and
reporting. CDC urges all travelers who are going to the 2012 European Football
Championship in Ukraine be immunized against measles.

In the United Kingdom, as of April 29, 2012, 1,279
suspected measles cases have been reported in 2012, mostly in Liverpool,
Knowsley, and Sefton. There were 1,083 measles cases reported from the United
Kingdom in 2011. CDC urges all travelers going to the 2012 Olympic and
Paralympic Games or Wimbledon in London be immunized against measles.

As of May 23, 2012, Spain has reported 182 measles cases
and Italy has reported 133 measles cases in 2012.

NOVEL CORONAVIRUS
INFECTION

SAUDI  ARABIA AND  QUATAR

30 November 2012 –In addition to the fatal
case of novel coronavirus in Saudi Arabia reported to WHO on 28 November, two
fatal cases in Jordan have been reported to WHO today, bringing the total of
laboratory-confirmed cases to nine.

23 November 2012
WHO has been notified of four additional cases,
including one death, due to infection with the novel coronavirus. The
additional cases have been identified as part of the enhanced surveillance in
Saudi Arabia (3 cases, including 1 death) and Qatar (1 case). This brings the
total of laboratory confirmed cases to 6.

 

10 October 2012
No
new cases of infection with the novel coronavirus have been reported since 22
September 2012. So far, after careful follow-up of close contacts of the two
confirmed cases, and a heightened state of global surveillance , there is no
evidence of human-to-human transmission of the virus.

 

 

POLIO

Polio is a serious disease that can cause paralysis and
death. If you are going to one of the countries, listed below, CDC recommends
that you make sure you are up to date on your polio vaccine. If your vaccine is
not up to date, you will need to get vaccinated.

Polio Boosters Are Recommended for Travelers Visiting the
Following Countries:

Afghanistan Kazakhstan
Angola Kenya
Benin Kyrgyzstan
Burkina
Faso
Liberia
Burundi Mali
Cameroon Mauritania
Central
African Republic
Namibia
Chad Niger
China Nigeria
Congo Pakistan
Côte
d’Ivoire
Rwanda
Democratic
Republic of the Congo (DRC)
Senegal
Djibouti Sierra
Leone
Equatorial
Guinea
Somalia
Eritrea Sudan and
South Sudan
Ethiopia Tajikistan
Gabon Tanzania
Gambia Togo
Ghana Turkmenistan
Guinea Uzbekistan
Guinea-Bissau Uganda
Iran Zambia

 

RIFT
VALLEY FEVER

MAURITANIA

1 November 2012
The
Ministry of Health (MoH) in Mauritania declared an outbreak of Rift Valley
Fever (RVF) on 4 October 2012. From 16 September 2012 (the date of onset of the
index case) to 30 October 2012, a total of 34 cases, including 17 deaths have
been reported from 6 regions. The last case was notified on the 27 October 2012
from Magta Lahjar in the Brakna region. The 6 regions include Assaba, Brakna,
Hodh Chargui, Hodh Gharbi, Tagant and Trarza. All the cases had history of
contact with animals.

 

SARCOCYSTOSIS

MALAYASIA

November 06, 2012. CDC has received reports from GeoSentinel of
four cases of sarcocystosis that have been associated with 2012 summer travel
to Tioman Island in Malaysia. Last year, 33 travelers returning from Tioman
Island were similarly diagnosed with sarcocystosis

 

 

YELLOW
FEVER

SUDAN

November 29, 2012- The Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) of Sudan and the World Health
Organization (WHO)
recently announced
that there is an outbreak of yellow fever in Sudan. This ongoing outbreak
started in early September and has affected 32 localities in Greater Darfur. A
total of 601 suspected cases, including 130 deaths, have been reported as of
November 26.

13 November 2012 –The Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) in Sudan has notified
WHO of a yellow fever outbreak affecting 23 localities in Greater Darfur. As of
11 November 2012, a total of 329 suspected cases including 97 deaths were
reported from this outbreak. Central and South Darfur have reported most of the
suspected cases.

 

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